12 muffin wells coated with palm shortening, or lined with paper liners
3/4 cup millet flour, or garbanzo bean (chickpea) flour, or quinoa flour
1/2 cup tapioca starch, or potato starch, or arrowroot starch, or cornstarch
1/3 cup soy-free vegan 100% cocoa powder
1/4 cup GF oat flour, or pure rice bran (Ener-G®), or pumpkin seed flour
2 teaspoons xanthan gum, or chia seed flour, or guar gum
1 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1/4 teaspoon agar powder, or unflavored gelatin of choice
1 cup light brown sugar, or evaporated cane juice, or granulated sweetener of choice (not stevia)
6 tablespoons pure olive oil, or coconut oil, or lard of choice, or butter of choice, or grapeseed oil
1 cup water
1 tablespoon apple cider vinegar, or coconut vinegar
1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
- Place baking rack in third position; preheat oven to 350°F; grease each muffin well with palm shortening, or place paper liners in wells; set aside.
- In airtight container, combine millet flour, tapioca starch, cocoa powder, GF oat flour, xanthan gum, baking soda, sea salt, and agar powder; place on lid; shake vigorously to combine and to introduce air; set aside.
- In large bowl using an electric mixer, beat together light brown sugar, oil, water, vinegar, and pure vanilla extract; add dry ingredients; beat for 2 minutes; fill muffin wells two-thirds full.
- Place into preheated 350°F oven; bake 35 – 40 minutes, or until cooked through.
- Remove pan from oven; allow cupcakes to cool in pan 10 minutes; turn out onto wire rack to cool completely.
Top cupcakes as desired with Chocolate Frosting (page 148), or Buttercream Icing (page 145).
To freeze: place plain cupcakes individually on parchment lined baking sheet; wrap sheet tightly in plastic; freeze until firm, about 2 hours; remove cupcakes to plastic freezer bag; return to freezer; store up to 3 months.
Frost cupcakes just prior to serving.
Servings: 12 cupcakes
Prep Time: 10 min
Cooking Time: 35 – 40 min